Katz and Kahn (1978 p. 91) see three functions of management:
1. Coordination of substructures
2. Resolution of conflicts between hierarchical levels
3. Coordination of external requirements with organizational resources
They see four types of dynamics caused by subsystems (proficiency, stability,
environmental manipulation, and internal change) that must be resolved by
management. Management alternates between compromise and small changes
and mobilization of resources and larger changes, resulting in a jerky motion
Top management are often insulated from the activities of the organization.
"What does reach top management are the indirect effects of hierarchical
conflict or the demands transmitted fro outside organizations of employees".
(Katz and Kahn p. 92)