In democratic systems, often the power moves upwards. Michels (1949) had
the most influential analysis of this process -- his work with the Social
Democratic Party in pre- WWI Germany showed that oligarchic tendencies shift
power from the majority and place it with an elite minority (Scott p. 332).
They are an unintended consequence of organization (Scott p. 332). The new
leaders become enamored of the social trappings of their position and become
more concerned with organizational survival than the stated goals of the
organization. The majority end up "rubber-stamping" executive
decisions. Thus the leadership ends up not serving the primary interests
of their organizational members.