"Technical complexity does not invariably give rise to greater complexity
of structure; it may give rise instead fo greater "complexity"
of the performer" (Scott p. 253). One can confront greater complexity
by hiring people better trained to deal with it. It works best with uncertain
jobs requiring little interdependence.
In autonomous professional groups, officials delegate most responsibility
to the professionals themselves to define and implement the goals and monitor
and reward each other's performance. The professionals organize themselves
to nominate the officials that primarily supervise the administration of
the organization. The professionals are largely independent and loosely
controlled through collegial relations. Examples of these include hospitals,
medical clinics, elite schools, and scientific institutes (Scott p. 254).
A second type is heteronomous professional organization, where the professionals
are clearly subordinated to an administrative framework and are more closely
supervised. Examples are libraries, secondary schools, small religious colleges,
engineering companies, applied research firms, and public accounting firms
(Scott p. 254).
The organizational structures for professionals in this type are similar
to "normal" organizations, but professionals are typically given
more autonomy, especially over means and techniques (Scott p. 254). Unfortunately,
adding professionals doesn't necessarily reduce supervision costs, as they
often generate more information that requires more management to process