Strategy and Goals
Chandler (1962) defines strategy as the "determination of the basic long range goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals". Thus the primary focus is the organization's link to the environment. It further defines 1) selection of domain (what business will be in) and 2) selection of competitive stance (how will we compete). Porter (1980) has defined a number of generic competitive strategies, including:

1. Overall cost leadership - high volume, low cost
2. differentiation -- unique, high brand image
3. focus -- on a particular buyer group, market

Strategies often confuse intentions with actions, official with operational goals (Scott p. 287). Mintzberg (1987) suggests a distinction between "intended" strategy (plans) , "emergent" strategy (unplanned patterns of behavior), and "realized" strategy (actual behavior planned or unplanned). Often unplanned activities (like out of R&D) change corporate strategy from the bottom ranks up.