Gerschenkron, Alexander. 1952. "Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective." in The Sociology of Economic Life, edited by Mark Granovetter and Richard Swedberg. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.


Industrialization of backward companies hasn't necessarily proceeded as did industrialization did in western countries.

The potential and the chasm for industrialization increase with technological development. But backward countries lack adequately trained labor to utilize and imitate these new advances. It also seemed that only when large-scale industrialization was possible did it happen -- small changes didn't cause the revolution.