Luke Stein, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Finance

Finance Division
Babson College
224 Tomasso Hall
231 Forest Street
Babson Park, MA 02457


Curriculum vitae (pdf)

One-page résumé (pdf)

Refereed publications

Financial inclusion, human capital, and wealth accumulation: Evidence from the Freedman’s Savings Bank

with Constantine Yannelis
The Review of Financial Studies, 33 (11), 5333–5377, November 2020
This paper studies how access to financial services among a previously unbanked group affects human capital, labor market, and wealth outcomes. We use novel data from the Freedman's Savings Bank — created following the American Civil War to serve free Blacks — employing an instrumental variables strategy exploiting the staggered rollout of bank branches. Families with accounts are more likely to have children in school, be literate, work, and have higher occupational income, business ownership and real estate wealth. Placebo effects are not present using planned but unbuilt branches, or for Whites, suggesting significant positive effects of financial inclusion.

[Journal page | Draft (pdf) | SSRN]

Independent executive directors: How distraction affects their advisory and monitoring roles

with Hong Zhao
Journal of Corporate Finance, 56, 199–223, June 2019
Active corporate executives are a popular source of independent directors. Although their knowledge, expertise, and network can bring value to firms on whose boards they sit, independent executive directors may be more likely to be distracted than other directors due to their outside executive roles. Using newly constructed data linking independent directors to their employers, we identify periods when employers’ poor performance may distract them from board service. We find that firms with distracted independent executive directors have lower performance and value, higher CEO compensation, reduced CEO turnover-performance sensitivity, lower earnings quality, and lower M&A performance. These adverse effects are mainly driven by distracted directors who sit on relevant committees, and are stronger for small boards.

[Journal page | Published version (pdf) | SSRN]

The “visible hand”: Race and online market outcomes

with Jennifer Doleac
The Economic Journal, 123 (572), F469–F492, Nov. 2013
We examine the effect of race on market outcomes by selling iPods through local online classified advertisements throughout the United States. Each advertisement features a photograph including a dark- or light-skinned hand, or one with a wrist tattoo. Black sellers receive fewer and lower offers than white sellers, and the correspondence with black sellers indicates lower levels of trust. Black sellers’ outcomes are particularly poor in thin markets (suggesting that discrimination may not “survive” competition among buyers) and those with the most racial isolation and property crime (consistent with channels through which statistical discrimination might operate).

[Journal page | Published version (pdf) | SSRN]

Working papers

Angels, entrepreneurship, and employment dynamics: Evidence from investor accreditation rules

with Laura Lindsey
Revision requested, The Journal of Financial Economics
This paper examines the effects of a shock to angel finance on entrepreneurial activity and employment. Using U.S. Census data, we estimate the state-level fraction of households that lost accreditation status from Dodd–Frank’s elimination of housing wealth in determining accreditation. A larger reduction in the pool of potential investors reduces firm entry and employment at small entrants, particularly in areas with alternate sources of financing. Employment increases at small and young incumbents, and relative wages for the startup sector decline, especially for high-skilled workers and industries. These results suggest that angels are an important source of entrepreneurial finance to high-quality, competitive firms.

[Draft (pdf) | SSRN]

Economic uncertainty and earnings management

with Charles C.Y. Wang
In the presence of managerial short-termism and asymmetric information about skill and effort provision, firms may opportunistically shift earnings from uncertain to more certain times. We document empirically that when financial markets are less certain about a firm's future value, the firm reports more negative discretionary accruals. Stock-price responses to earnings surprises are moderated when firm-level uncertainty is high, consistent with performance being attributed more to luck rather than skill and effort, which can create incentives to shift earnings toward lower-uncertainty periods. We document that the resulting opportunistic earnings management is concentrated in CEOs, firms, and periods where such incentives are likely to be strongest: (1) where CEO wealth is sensitive to change in the share price, (2) where announced earnings are particularly likely to be an important source of information about managerial ability and effort, and (3) before implementation of Sarbanes-Oxley made opportunistic earnings management more challenging. Our evidence highlights a novel channel through which uncertainty affects managerial decision making in the presence of agency conflicts.

[Draft (pdf) | SSRN]

Tax-timing options and the demand for idiosyncratic volatility

with Oliver Boguth
Investors have a choice over when to incur taxes on individual investments, and typically benefit from delaying the realization of capital gains while harvesting losses. This option implies that the effective tax rate on capital losses exceeds the one on capital gains, resulting in a convex after-tax payoff. Convexity creates a demand for idiosyncratic volatility (IVOL) within a well-diversified portfolio, and can therefore explain the puzzling negative relation between IVOL and expected stock returns. A simple model with tax-timing options predicts that the demand for idiosyncratic volatility increases with the tax rate, the nominal interest rate, and unrealized capital gains, and we show that all three measures predict the IVOL premium in the time-series. In the cross-section, we show that the magnitude of the IVOL premium increases with investors’ average tax exposure.

[Draft (pdf) | SSRN]

The effect of uncertainty on investment: Evidence from equity options

with Elizabeth Stone
There is wide debate over the impact of uncertainty on firm behavior, due to the difficulty both of measuring uncertainty and of identifying causality. This paper takes three steps that attempt to address these challenges. First, we develop an instrumental variables strategy that exploits firms’ differential exposure to energy and currency prices and volatility. For example, airlines are negatively affected by high oil prices while oil refiners benefit from them, but both are sensitive to oil price volatility; retailers, in comparison, are not particularly sensitive to either the level or volatility of oil prices. Second, we use the expected volatility of stock prices as implied by equity options to obtain forward-looking measures of uncertainty over firms’ business conditions. Finally, we examine how uncertainty affects a range of outcomes: capital investment, hiring, research and development, and advertising. We find that uncertainty depresses capital investment, hiring, and advertising, but encourages R&D spending. This perhaps-surprising result for R&D is consistent with a theoretical literature emphasizing that long investment lags create valuable real put options which offset the effects of call options lost when projects are started. Aggregating across our panel of Compustat firms, we find that rising uncertainty accounts for roughly a third of the fall in capital investment and hiring that occurred in 2008–10.

[Draft (pdf) | SSRN]

Race, skin color, and economic outcomes in early twentieth-century America

with Roy Mill (version 2.0 — now also with Ran Abramitzky and Jacob Conway — coming soon)
We study the effect of race on economic outcomes using unique data from the first half of the twentieth century, a period in which skin color was explicitly coded in U.S. censuses as “White,” “Black,” or “Mulatto.” We construct a panel of siblings by digitizing and matching records across the 1910 and 1940 censuses, identifying all 12,000 African-American families in which enumerators classified some children as light-skinned (“Mulatto”) and others as dark-skinned (“Black”). Siblings coded “Mulatto” when they were children (in 1910) earned similar wages as adults (in 1940) as their Black siblings. This within-family earnings difference is substantially lower than the Black-Mulatto earnings difference in the general population, suggesting that skin color in itself played only a small role in the earnings gap. In the second half of the paper, we focus on individuals who “passed for White,” an important social phenomenon at the time. To do so, we identify individuals coded “Mulatto” as children but “White” as adults. Passing meant that individuals changed their racial affiliation by changing their social presentation while skin color remained unchanged. Comparing passers to their siblings who did not pass, we find that passing was associated with substantially higher earnings, suggesting that social presentations of race could have significant consequences for economic outcomes.

[Draft (pdf) | SSRN]


Recipient of 2022 Thomas Kennedy Award for Teaching Excellence (Babson College's annual “Graduate Faculty of the Year” awarded annually to one faculty member ‘‘who personifies teaching excellence at the graduate level and whose personal standards of quality and caring extend beyond the classroom’’)

Recipient of 2019 Huizingh Outstanding Undergraduate Teacher Award (ASU W.P. Carey School of Business’ annual award to an instructor “dedicated to inspiring students through excellence in teaching and mentoring”)

Recipient of 2011–12 Gores Award (Stanford University's “highest award for excellence in teaching”)

Instructor, Babson College

Instructor, Arizona State University

  • Managerial Finance (Finance 302)

  • Identification Strategies in Corporate Finance (Finance 791)

Instructor, Stanford University

  • Intermediate Microeconomics (Economics 50)

  • Microeconomic Theory for Non-Economics Ph.D. Students (Economics 202N) [slides (pdf)]

  • Online High School Microeconomics (EPGY OHS Economics 20)

Teaching Assistant, Stanford University

  • Introduction to Financial Economics (Economics 140)

  • First-Year Ph.D. Macroeconomics (Economics 210) [notes (pdf)]

  • Managerial Economics for MBAs (GSB Management Economics 200)

  • Economics for Sloan Fellows (GSB Management Economics 209)

  • Emergency Medical Technician Training (Surgery 111a/211a)



  • Anthony Rice (Ph.D. 2021), Chinese University of Hong Kong

  • Sean Flynn (Ph.D. 2017), Colorado State University

  • Hong Zhao (Ph.D. 2017), NEOMA Business School

  • Yung-Ling Chi (Ph.D. 2016), National Chung Hsing University

  • Qi Dong (Ph.D. 2015), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals


Chadwick Ali'varius (B.S. 2020), Max Bamford (B.S. 2020), Alexander Doughty (B.S. 2020), Neil Jha (B.S. 2020), Zach Leibovit-Reiben (B.S. 2020), John Charette (B.S. 2019), Harshit Thacker (B.S. 2019), Hamza Amjad (B.S. 2018), Gurkaran Chotalla (B.S. 2017), Landon Gagner (B.S. 2017), Matthew Klein (B.S. 2017), John Lauro (B.S. 2017), Michael Muscheid (B.S. 2017), Aaron Chavez (B.S. 2016), A. J. Gilman (B.S./B.A. 2016), Steven Kaye (B.S. 2016), Samir Reddy (B.S. 2016)